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WHITE PINE - Pinus silvestris

Usable part of the herb - pine buds - Turiones Pini.

Family Pinaceae

Description. White pine is an evergreen, resinous, law, monoecious tree reaching a height of 30 m. The bark on the lower part is gray and cracked, and the top - light brown. The leaves are needle along two rounded outside and inside concave with membranous scales at the base. Male flowers are yellow catkins and are collected in false bunches of many stamens and anthers two. Female flowers are collected in ovate cones at the tips of young twigs and consist of red flakes, the base of which has two ovules. After dusting cones grow. Ripen after the second year, their scales open and the seeds fall off. The white pine blooms in May – June

Distribution. White pine is widely played in separate or mixed forests in the mountains of Bulgaria - Central Stara Planina, Rila, the Rhodopes, Vitosha, Pirin, Osogovo and others. 2200 m. above sea level.

Drugs. Pine buds - Tiriones Pini.

Besides them they use more pine bark and wood chips, pine balm essential oil of pine needles and twigs, pine juice, oil seeds. Pine balm distillation are obtained terebintin oil and rosin.

Pine buds are harvested in early spring (March), when in the cleavage step. It is they who represent drug used in herbalism. They are almost cylindrical, 2-5 cm long and 4 mm thick. They consist of axis around which are arranged densely numerous black-brown edge colorless and torn, glued with a resinous secretion flakes. In the bosom of each flake is one ovule. Dried in the shade or in a drying oven at temperatures up to 35 ° C and good ventilation. Packaged in bags. The dried herb with pinkish-brown color with a pleasant smell and a resinous balsamic bitter taste.

Chemical composition. The buds contain about 0.4% essential oil, vitamins B1, C and K, tannins, resinous substances, carotene and others. The essential oil contains mainly α-pinene, at least β-pinene, Silvestri, dipentene, terpineol, kadinen, limonene, borneol, complex esters and free alcohols.

Action and use. Pine tops facilitating expectoration and act softener mucosal antiseptic and in acute and chronic bronchitis, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract (internal form of inhalation and rubbed). The essential oil (terebintinovo) obtained from the resin of the white pine is used in diseases of the bronchi and lungs. It has bactericidal properties, acts diuretic, dissolves kidney stones, urinary and bladder dilates blood vessels and cause redness and warmth of the skin - used as a skin irritant and in the treatment of eczema, lichens and rashes. Due to its anti-inflammatory action has a good effect for rheumatism, stabbing, sciatica, lumbago, neuralgia, gout.

Folk medicine recommends it with shortness of breath, edema, scurvy.

Usage. In bronchitis pine buds are accepted in the form of sugar or honey sirip (in children). In rheumatism and skin diseases are made baths.

Pine buds are applied in the form of a decoction. One tablespoon pine tops are covered with 300 ml. boiling water and boil for 1 min. Allow to soak for 30 minutes, strain and sweeten with honey or glucose. From the drink extract 3 times daily 40 ml. for children and 80 ml. adult.