Usable part of the herb elder - flowers, fruits, bark and roots of black elderber.
Description. Black elder is a shrub or tree with spreading branches and white foam core. Leaves are with 2-3 pairs of leaflets, up to 20 cm. The individual leaflets are ovate or oblong, pointed, densely serrated. The flowers of the plant elderber are very small, yellowish-white, gathered in complex inflorescences. They have a 5-toothed cup yellowish corolla, which is being composed of 5 fused at the base widely blunted gum pads. Stamens are 5, with large, yellow anthers.
Distribution. Black elder is ubiquitous in wet places around the undergrowth in forests and settlements. In the mountains is located at an altitude of 1500 m.
Drugs. Flowers, fruits, bark and roots of black elder - Flores, Fructus, cortex et Radix Sambuci.
As drug is collected flower and fruit of the plant. Rarely used roots and inner bark of the stem. The flowers are picked in dry and sunny weather before their full flowering (May June). Immediately dried in the shade or in a drying oven at temperatures up to 40 ° C. The dried flowers of black elder are yellow-white with a pleasant smell. Once dried, passed through a thick sieve, through which pass only blooms not the small flower stalks. The fruits are collected after their complete maturation (August-September).
Dried in the shade or in an oven to 40 ° C. Dried fruits of black elderber are black and purple, oval and wrinkled. The bark is peeled in the spring, when soldered movement of juices, such as cleansing of the cork layer. It was dried in the shade or in a drying oven at temperatures up to 45 ° C. Roots are removed in the autumn (in October) or spring (April-May), washed, a thick were cut and dried in the shade or in a drying oven at temperatures up to 40 ° C. All drugs are stored in a cool dry place. Allowed to contain up to 12% moisture.
Chemical composition. The flowers contain essential oil, a bitter substance, alkaloids, flavonoids, resins, rutile-like eldrine glycoside, mucilage, tannins, sugar, choline, vitamin C, organic acids, glycosidic substances diaphoretic action and others. The bark of elderber contains volatile oil, fitosterin, valeric acid, choline, tannins, resins and others., And the fruits - glycoside sambunagrin, vitamin C, sambutsin, sambutsianin, carotene, iron, tannin, malic acid and tartaric acid, amino acids, vitamins group B and others.
Action and use. The flowers of black elder act anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, expectorant secretolytic and inflammation of the airways, colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis coughs. The anti-inflammatory action of the black elder is due to an essential oil, weakening the initial phase of inflammation, and a routine which has anti-inflammatory action in the phase of exudation, and also reduces the sensitization of the organism and the permeability of the vascular wall.
The action is carried out by increasing the sensitivity of the centers governing sweating, and not directly by affecting the skin sweat glands. Fruits are slightly laxative, and the leaves of the black elder - laxative and diuretic. This effect is due to contained therein resinous substances. Drugs elder are prescribed for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, rheumatism, gout and others.
Folk medicine prescribe them for high blood pressure, shortness of breath, difficulty urinating and blood pissing. The roots and bark of black elder are recommended as a laxative and obesity, extract from the leaves - for rheumatism, hemorrhoids (baths), skin diseases, and the fruits - such as enhancer and neuralgia.
Usage. The flowerrs of black elderis applied as an infusion. Two teaspoons color elder pour 250 ml. boiling water. Leave to soak for 15-30 minutes. Strain the infusion from 1-3 adopt tea daily. For colds tea elder is considered hot.